Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Energy Crisi in Pakistan
TarbelaÃ¢â¬â¢s 4th extension project to add 1410 MW Posted byÃ adminÃ on August 22, 2011Ã inÃ PkTodayÃ |Ã 0 Comment ISLAMABAD (APP) Ã¢â¬â The total generation capacity of the Tarbela Hydropower Station will touch 4,888 megawatt mark with the addition of 1,410 MW as a result of 4th extension project. Official sources told APP on Sunday that the detailed engineering design, tender documents and PC-1 of the Tarbela 4th Extension Project were in active progress and would be completed by next month and would cost $5. 5 million provided by the World Bank.M/S Mott MacDonald (UK) was hired for the detailed engineering design of the project. The sources said that the project would take four years after award of the contract. They said the project would not only generate additional 1410 MW cheap hydel power but also save foreign exchange of $ 900 million spent on import of one million tons of furnace oil annually for equivalent generation of electricity from thermal resources. The World Bank has also shown interest in financing civil works and generating units of the project during the construction, they said.The project will also provide a cushion to undertake rehabilitation and up-gradation of the existing Tarbela Power House during the lean period. It is pertinent to mention that Tarbela`s 4th Extension Project is a part of least-cost energy generation plan, being implemented by WAPDA (Water and Power Development Authority) on priority to harness indigenous hydropower resources of the country with a view to improving the ratio of hydel electricity in the national grid. 50 MW coal power plant being installed in SIEPosted byÃ adminÃ on September 23, 2011Ã inÃ PkTodayÃ |Ã 1 Comment Punjab Industrial Estates (PIE) has completed initial work to install the first ever 50 megawatt (MW) coal power generation plant in Sundar Industrial Estate (SIE) in Lahore while process of getting license from NEPRA is underway. For this purpose, the Board of Dir ector of PIE has established a power committee under PIE, which will look after this and other power related projects of industrial estates of Punjab. You can read also Thin Film Solar CellChairman of PIE, SM Tanveer in a briefing to Lahore Economic Journalist Association on Thursday said extension work of 132 KVA grid station of PIE was also underway to add additional 34 megawatt in the industrial estate system to ensure uninterrupted availability of power to the industries of the SIE. Meanwhile, PIE has also started Industrial Estate development work in Bahlwal and Rahim Yar Khan with its own resources, he said adding that planning and development of ten other industrial estates in the province was also underway.He said these industrial estates would be established in Kasur Tannery Park, Gujrat, Vehari, Bahawalpur, D G Khan, Wazirabad Cutlery Cluster, Jhang, Okara, Sahiwal and Rawalpindi. He said PIE was working under the vision of Punjab Chief Minister Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif to make the Punjab an industrial hub in the country with all modern facilities. He said a 100-acre Halal Park would also be established in Rahim Yar Khan a nd Multan Industrial Estates to promote the Halal products of Pakistan and get its share from world Halal food market.He said PIEDMC made the public private partnership concept successful and completing its project without support of any government institution. He said the Punjab government had given Rs 1 billion only at the time the PIEDMC was establishedÃ¢â¬âand now the company is worth around Rs 15 billion. Talking about the financials of the company, S M Tanveer said that PIE BoD approved 2005 to 2008 accounts while international repute Internal and External Auditors was appointed for self-accountability of the PIEDMC.He said SIE is a state-of-the-art industrial estate in Pakistan where all utilities and concerned departments offices including SNGPL, EOBI and Social Security were established. He said as the result of the present management of the PIE, the Punjab government had abolished capital value tax. He said the master plan of Bahlwal Industrial Estate was completed and litigations in Multan Industrial Estate were finished so that work on Phase-II of this estate could be started.PIEDMC is under process of developing Rahim Yar Khan, Bhalwal, Multan Phase II and Vehari industrial estates and total available land is 1590 acres whereas the sellable land is 1,094 acresÃ¢â¬âapprox 70% of the total land. Whereas the remaining 30% will be used for horticulture and infrastructure development. Chairman of PIE informed it is worth mentioning that through industrialisation of these industrial estates Ã¢â¬Å"we will generate 192,000 jobs. Ã¢â¬ He further explained the total contribution in the GDP of the country would be approx Rs 17 billion. OUTLINE: 1. Introduction . PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s Energy Sector 2. 1 Energy Supply 2. 2 Energy Consumption 3. Sources of Energy in Pakistan 3. 1 Non-renewable resources (Fossil fuels) a). Petroleum products b). Natural Gas c). Coal 3. 2 Renewable Resources a). Hydro power o Current Hydropower stations o Potential Hydropow er stations 3. 3 Alternative Energy Sources a). Wind b). Solar c). Agricultural biomass /biodiesel d). Tidal 3. 4 Nuclear 4. Causes of Energy Crisis 4. 1 Growing Energy Demand 4. 2 Lack of proactive and integrated planning for production of energy 4. 3 Imbalanced energy mix 4. Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resourcesÃ a). Thar Coal b). Hydal power generation 5. Consequences of Energy Crisis 5. 1 Economic Factors 5. 2 Agriculture Sector 5. 3 Industrial Sector 5. 4 Unemployment 5. 5 Social Issues 5. 6 Poverty 6. Conclusion 7. Recommendation/Solutions of Energy Crisis 7. 1 Judicious energy use/saving unecessary energy usage o electricity saving devices o Awareness campaign for energy saving o Reduction in unnecessary transportations o Installation of effective equipment/energy efficient in industries o Decreasing line/transmission losses . 2 Developing new energy resources o Tapping indigenous resources o Using renewable resources (water) by constructing new dams and hydro power plantsÃ o Import of natural gas o Utilizing alternative energy resources Wind power Biodiesel /Biomass Solar Tidal o Enhancing civilian nuclear capacity 1. Introduction : Energy is considered to be life line of any economy and most vital instrument of socioeconomic development of a country. Energy is pivotal in running machinery in factories and industrial units, for lighting our cities and powering our vehicles etc.There has been an enormous increase in the demand of energy as a result of industrial development and population growth, in comparison to enhancement in energy production. Supply of energy is, therefore, far less than the actual demand, resultantly crisis has emerged. An energy crisis can be defined as any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. 2. PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s Energy Sector: PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s energy infrastructure is not well developed, rather it is considered to be underdeveloped and poorly managed. Currentl y the country is facing severe energy crisis.Despite of strong economic growth and rising energy demand during past decade, no serious efforts have been made to install new capacity of generation. Moreover, rapid demand growth, transmission losses due to outdated infrastructure, power theft, and seasonal reductions in the availability of hydropower have worsened the situation. Consequently, the demand exceeds supply and hence load-shedding is a common phenomenon through power shutdown. 2. 1 Energy Supply : During 2009-10, Energy supply and per capita availability of energy witnessed a decline of 0. 64 % and 3. 09 % respectively in comparison to previous year.Pakistan needs around 15,000 to 20000 MW electricity per day, however, currently it is able to produce about 11,500 MW per day hence there is a shortfall of about 4000 to 9000 MW per day. This shortage is badly hampering the economic growth of the country. 2. 2 Energy Consumption : PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s energy consumption is met by mix of gas, oil, electricity, coal and LPG sources with different level of shares. Share of gas consumption stood at 43. 7 %, followed by oil 29. 0 percent, electricity 15. 3 percent, coal 10. 4 percent and LPG 1. 5 percent. 3. Sources of Energy in Pakistan: 3. 1 Non-renewable resources (Fossil fuels):Ã [Limited Ã¢â¬â Expensive]Non renewable resources are primarily fossil fuels emanating from remains/decomposition of animals and plants deposited deep into the earth crust and converted into oil and gas. These resources cannot be replenished. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). a). Petroleum products: In 2009-10, consumption of petroleum products was 29% of total share of energy. Majority of crude oil is imported from gulf countries to meet the demand. Power, industry and transport sectors consume higher quantity of petroleum followed by agriculture and house holds.Petroleum is also used in generation of elec tricity, which counts 64 percent of total electricity generation (34 coming from hydro generation). Balance recoverable reserves of crude oil in country have been estimated at 303. 63 million barrels and we are extracting approximately 24 million crude oil annually, meaning if we do not explore new wells, we will exhaust our current crude oil reserves in 12-13 years. b). Natural Gas: Importance of natural gas is increasing rapidly. Average production of natural gas is 4,048. 76 million cubic feet per day as against 3,986. 53 million during corresponding last year, showing an increase of 1. 6 percent. Natural gas is used in general industry to prepare consumer items, to produce cement, for manufacturing fertilizers and to generate electricity. In form of CNG, it is used in transport sector. Share of natural gas in energy consumption is 43. 7 percent. Due to price differential between CNG and Petrol, vehicles are using converted to CNG and approximately 2. 0 million vehicles are using CNG and currently Pakistan is the largest CNG user country in the world. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contributes around 0. 7 percent to total energy supply in country and is being imported to stop deforestation in hilly areas. ). Coal: Pakistan has coal reserves estimated at over 185 billion tonnes, including 175 billion tonnes identified at Thar coalfields. Coal is primarily being used in brick kiln and cement industries and approximately 67 percent coal is imported because indigenous coal is not considered of good quality. Guddu plant is largest plant thermal operated plant with a capacity of 1,650 MW, while two largest Independent Power Plants (IPPs) in Pakistan are Kot Addu (1,600 MW) and Hubb River (1,300 MW). 3. 2 Renewable Resources : (Unlimited Ã¢â¬â sustainable Ã¢â¬â clean)Renewable energy resources are those, which are naturally replenished and comes from resources such as water, sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat. a). Hydro power: Hydro power is gen erated by using electricity generators to extract energy from moving water. Pakistan is having rich resource of energy in hydal power, however, only 34 % of total electricity generation is coming from hydro power. Currently we are having 6555 MW against the potential of 41000 to 45000 MW. Current Hydropower stations: Tarbella Dam : 3,478 MW Ghazi Brotha: 1450 MW Mangla 1,000 MW Warsak 240 MW Chashma 184 MW Potential Hydropower stations:Diamer-Bhasha Dam 4500 MW Munda Dam Ã¢â¬â Swat river in Mohamand Agency 740 MW Kalabagh Dam 2400-3600 MW Bunji Dam 5400 MW Dasu Dam 3800 MW 3. 3 Alternative Sources of EnergyÃ : a). Wind: Wind power harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. These turbines cause the rotation of magnets, which creates electricity. Though Pakistan has potentials of wind energy ranging from 10000 MW to 50000 MW, yet power generation through wind is in initial stages in Pakistan and currently 06 MW has been installed in first phase in Jham pir through a Turkish company and 50 MW will be installed shortly.More wind power plants will be built in Jhampir, Gharo, Keti Bandar and Bin Qasim Karachi. b). Solar : Solar power involves using solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, using sunlight hitting solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air. Pakistan has potential of more than 100,000 MW from solar energy. Building of solar power plants is underway in Kashmir, Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan. However, private vendors are importing panels / solar water heaters for consumption in the market. Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) is working for 20,000 solar water heaters in Gilgit Baltistan.Mobile companies have been asked by the government to shift supply of energy to their transmission towers from petroleum to solar energy panels. c). Agricultural biomass /biodiesel : Biomass production involves using garbage or other renewable resources such as sugarcane, corn or other vegetation to generat e electricity. When garbage decomposes, methane is produced and captured in pipes and later burned to produce electricity. Vegetation and wood can be burned directly to generate energy, like fossil fuels, or processed to form alcohols.Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs from biomass/biodiesel in the world, followed by USA. Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) of Pakistan has planned to generate 10 MW of electricity from municipal waste in Karachi followed by similar projects in twenty cities of country. d). Tidal: Tidal power can be extracted from Moon-gravity-powered tides by locating a water turbine in a tidal current. The turbine can turn an electrical generator, or a gas compressor, that can then store energy until needed. Coastal tides are a source of clean, free, renewable, and sustainable energy.Plans are underway in Pakistan to harness tidal energy, however, no implementation has been made so far. 3. 4 Nuclear: Nuclear power stations use nuclear fi ssion reaction to generate energy by the reaction of uranium inside a nuclear reactor. Pakistan has a small nuclear power program, with 425 MW capacity, but there are plans to increase this capacity substantially. Since Pakistan is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it is excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which hinders its development of civil nuclear energy.Remaining issues in development of nuclear energy are enricment of uranium from U235 to U238, controlling chain reaction and dumping of solid waste. Pakistan Nuclear Power Reactors Reactor Type MW Construction started Commercial operation Karachi PHWR 125 1966 1972 Chashma 1 PWR 300 1993 2000 Chashma 2 PWR 300 2005 expected 2011 Total 425 MW * Pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) Ã¢â¬â Canadian based reactorsÃ ** Pressurized water reactor (PWR) Ã¢â¬â Chinese based reactors 4. Causes of Energy CrisisÃ : PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s energy crisis traces its roots to following distinct causes : * Growi ng Energy Demand over the years there is greater need of energy because of; Ã¢â¬ ¢ increase in population, Ã¢â¬ ¢ enhancement in lifestyle Ã¢â¬ ¢ industrial and agricultural growth Ã¢â¬ ¢ greater transportation needs * Lack of proactive and integrated planning for production of energy: Pakistan has had wider potentials to tap energy, however, due to lack of any integrated/proactive planning, very less number of power producing plant were installed to meet futuristic demands. Resultantly, over the years, the gap between energy demand and supply drastically grew and now against demand of 20000 MW, we are having around 11500 MW. Imbalanced energy energy mix Energy mix in Pakistan is quite imbalance in comparison to other countries, with greater reliance on non-renewable resources of gas (43. 7 %) and oil (29 % Ã¢â¬â majority of which is imported). Prices of petroleum products/crude oil fluctuate and in current Afro-Arab political crisis, the oil prices are likely to increase man ifold affecting oil prices in Pakistan. A rational energy mix planning ought to be developed giving greater dependency to renewable (hydel power), indigenous (coal) and alternative energy resources (wind and solar energy).Nuclear energy canÃ * Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resources: o Thar Coal: Pakistan is having one of the largest coal fields in Thar, having reserves of more than 175 billion tones, which exceeds equivalent oil reserves of Saudi Arabia, Iran etc. In addition to power generation, this coal can be used for chemical and fertilizer production. Moreover, employment provided to workforce can be instrumental in increasing GDP and economic prosperity to many families. o Hydal power generation :Pakistan has potential of hydro resources to generate 41000 to 45000 MW, however, only 6555 MW is currently being generated by this important renewable resource. Four large hydro power dams namely Kalabagh 3600 MW, Bhasha 4500 MW, Bunji 5400 MW and Dasu 3800 MW ca n be constructed to generate hydro electricity. Similarly, many small to medium hydro plants can be installed on rivers and canals etc. 5. Consequences of Energy Crisis : i). Economic Factors: Energy is pivotal for running all other resources and crisis of energy directly influences all other sectors of the economy.The economic progress is hampered by decline in agricultural productivity as well as by halting in operations of industries. One important factor of lower GDP and inflation of commodity prices in recent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply. ii). Agriculture Sector: Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provision of energy for running tube wells, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizers and pesticides. Thus higher energy means higher agricultural productivity. iii).Industrial Sector: Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and breakage in energy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result o f decline in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also the existing industrial units are gradually closing. iv). Unemployment: By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, new employment opportunities ceased to exist and already employed manpower is shredded by the employers to increase their profit ratios. Thus energy crisis contributes towards unemployment. v).Social Issues: This factor is primarily related to the domestic usage of energy (cooking, heating and water provision). Load shedding cause unrest and frustration amongst the people and results in agitation against the government. vi). Poverty: Declination in economic growth, lower agricultural productivity, unemployment and shackling industrial growth result in increasing poverty. Currently, around forty percent of our population is living beyond poverty line and this ratio is increasing day by day. Ample control of energy crisis will surely yield in curbing the menace of pove rty. 6. Conclusion:Energy Crisis has, more or less, plagued all sectors of PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s machinery ranging from economy to industry, agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hampering national progress in a drastic manner. Nonetheless, menace of energy crisis can be overwhelmed by government through making effective policies and its proactive implementation. Simultaneously, it is the responsibility of us, the people of Pakistan, to utilize the available energy astutely and wisely to play our due role for progress of the country. 7. Recomendations/Solutions of Energy CrisisÃ : Energy crisis can be curtailed by : ). Reducing unnecessary energy use: o Usage of electricity saving devices o Awareness campaign for energy saving o Reduction in unnecessary transportations by developing good public transport systems and strengthening Pakistan railwaysÃ o Reduction in industrial uses with installation of effective equipment/ energy efficient and with increasing effi ciency of workforce (cost effective) o Decreasing reliance on rental power projects, because instead of doing any good, they are increasing prices of electricity. o Decreasing line losses by using efficient power transmission cables ii).Developing new energy resources : o Tapping indigenous resources (Thar coal) o Using renewable resources (water) by constructing new dams and hydro power plantsÃ o Import of natural gas by IPI (Iran Pakistan India) and TAPI (Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India) pipelinesÃ o Import of electricity from Tajikistan -through Pak Afghan Tajikistan transmission- and Iran (approximately 1000 MW from each of them) pipelines o Utilizing alternative energy resources : Wind power Biodiesel /Biomass Solar Tidal o Enhancing civilian nuclear capacity ENERGY CRISIS IN PAKISTAN IntroductionPresent scenario of crisis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Demand supply gap Ã¢â¬ ¢ Counter measures Reasons of energy crisis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Unrealistic plans and improper implementation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Failure of introducing new projects Ã¢â¬ ¢ Underutilization of resources Ã¢â¬ ¢ Circular debt Ã¢â¬ ¢ International oil prices Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provincial prejudices Ã¢â¬ ¢ Water shortage Ã¢â¬ ¢ Transmission losses Ã¢â¬ ¢ Power wastage Ã¢â¬ ¢ Theft of electric power Ã¢â¬ ¢ Accelerating demand Ã¢â¬ ¢ Minimal research/exploration Immediate efforts/goals Ã¢â¬ ¢ RPPs Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stabilizing industrial sector Ã¢â¬ ¢ Limiting commercial supply hours Short term goals Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reviving non functional power plants Ã¢â¬ ¢ Revamping transmission system Thar coal project Ã¢â¬ ¢ IPI gas pipeline project Ã¢â¬ ¢ Alternate/renewable energy sources Long term goals Ã¢â¬ ¢ Conforming foreign policy and energy needs Ã¢â¬ ¢ New dams Ã¢â¬ ¢ Transparency Ã¢â¬ ¢ Efficient techniques and usage Ã¢â¬ ¢ Measures against power theft Energy crisis in transportation sector Ã¢â¬ ¢ Biofuels/synfuels Ã¢â¬ ¢ Standard of public transport system Hurdles Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lack of will and implementation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Corruption and malpractices Ã¢â¬ ¢ Trust deficit conclusion Ã¢â¬Å"It is evident that the fortune o f the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s human populations, for better or for worse, are inextricably interrelated with the use that is made of energy resources. M. King Hubbert The nexus between economic prosperity and self sufficiency in energy has become essentially vital for Pakistan. Today the energy crisis looming before us is the culmination of a long list of governmental failures, malpractices along with inefficient ways of consumption and a perpetually fragile economy. The futility of apparent counter measures can be attributed to slow or non existent exploration and exploitation of new resources; outdated administrative and technical systems; lack of tactful diplomacy at international level, all requiring immediate attention.Presently, the demand-supply gap in the energy sector has reached one of its highest in the country. This gap subsequently produced huge shortage of power that has adversely affected the economy. The crippling economy was further damaged when many industrial units had to be shut down, rendering thousands jobless. Consequently, this on going chain of crises is accelerating inflation. The government has intended to counter it with Rental Power Plants (RPPs) like the previous IPPs and to ease the burden on common man the authorities claim to be providing continuous subsidies in the power sector.However, the constant trust deficit on the part of masses is not only due to the transparency issue of RPPs, it is majorly due to a constant increase in power failures and shortage, revealing an increase in the crisis instead of signs of recovery. If we take a look at the factors contributing to this enormous problem, the first and foremost one comes out to be the absence of any long term planning along with constant application of such plans. Sadly, the failures of previous governments to increase the supply of energy by new measures against the escalating demand are glari ngly obvious.Small scale projects like the Ghazi barotha only put a temporary halt to the arriving crisis instead of nipping it in the bud. Secondly, the under utilization of available resources- especially hydroelectric one which can produce double the energy it is producing now- is another major setback. The government again fails or neglects to consider the shortages in winter and up-gradation of the hydroelectric and the thermal plants regularly. Thirdly, the Ã¢â¬Ëcircular debtÃ¢â¬â¢ is like an invisible impediment subtly fuelling up the crisis.It is an inheritance of former subsidies which the government failed to pay to the power companies, who in turn could not pay the oil and gas companies for supplies. Add to this the fluctuating international oil prices and the failing economy_ the war against terrorism and decreasing Foreign Direct investment-worsened the problem and induced further power and imported oil shortage. Subsequently, the political heads had to turn their e yes back to hydroelectric power generation.But the projects like Kalabagh Dam became victims of narrow mindedness and provincial prejudices which led to failure of consensus of opinion. Had the Kalabagh Dam been built on time, we would not be confronted with this crisis today. Also the acute shortage of water; the curtailed supply in eastern rivers by India; major consumption and wastage of water in irrigation and the decreasing capacity of Mangela and Terbela Dams due to sedimentation render the hydroelectric power generation equally problematic as the thermal power generation.Of the chronic factors, the heavy line losses plus the old and poorly maintained transmission system is a grave administrative and technical failure of public sector power companies. These line losses are comparatively very low elsewhere in the world. Similarly, in the industrial and agricultural sectors which avail more than seventy percent of total power, the outdated techniques and malpractices of consumpt ion waste more than a third of the consumed power. Moreover, the masses do not remain behind in adding to this loss. The theft of electricity, especially in urban areas has become a routine matter.Due to the decades old perception that this is a never ending crisis and no accountability whatsoever, people tend to use unfair means of obtaining electric power. Another reason is the unprecedented increase in demand of energy. It is due to the trend of enjoying luxurious life style in the past decade. This increased demand by the domestic section has greatly disturbed the usually articulated demand and consumption status. Last but not least, snail paced research, minimal exploitation of new energy reserves and exploration of new oil and gas field damages progress in the energy sector.Couple this with the never ending corruption and lack of implementation in government and power companies this crisis has become a consistent and self perpetuating one. Seen in this perspective, Pakistan no t only needs immediate efforts to reduce the demand-supply gap but also some elaborate and well chalked out immediate, short and long term plans and efforts. Thankfully, some sections in the society are aware of the magnanimity of this dire problem. The RPPs are expected to start working soon and the subsidies in the energy sector are still cushioning at least a part of the blow.But the real issue is of determining priorities and extracting maximum results even from this bleak scenario. Keeping this in view, the first policy of the government should be to supply uninterrupted supply of power to the industrial units, small or big, especially in industrial cities like Faisalabad, Gujaranwala. Also the power supply should be continuous for small local businesses throughout the country. Even if it equates to the continuation of the domestic shortage for a while, at least half of the RPPs should be employed for the industrial section.In addition, there are some non-operating power statio ns in the country which only require a little investment and technical improvements to revive them. Such power units should be made effective to pull the economy out of complete doom. Secondly, the markets and shopping centers should be strictly enforced to close their business till 10 pm at night. This save power in different parts of each city can be diverted towards the domestic consumers by means of an effective administrative local system. The media and provincial governments would be of utmost importance in this strategy.The media specially, can acquire public support and educate masses in this regard. Resultantly, they will be able to remove the trust deficit between the government and the people. Coming on to the short term goals, the main focus should be on the revival of those dead power generation units in Sindh and Punjab which can be made functional again and the systematic up-gradation of thermal and hydroelectric plants. Resultantly, these projects will maintain the s mooth flow of energy and will at least prevent any further widening in the demand-supply gap.Similarly, the replacement of transmission lines to reduce losses should fall under the auspices of the provincial governments and ministries with proper allocation of budget from the center. The replacement of expired transmission systems is long overdue. This process must be gradual and systematic to refrain from becoming a drain on the resources and it should be initiated from areas most severely hit by energy shortage. After curbing and curing the internal ills, the attention should be diverted to exploration of new fossil fuel reserves (natural gas).As the thermally generated accounts for the major share of power in Pakistan, it should be dealt with effectively. Contrary to the deficit of oil reserves, the coal reserves in Pakistan are the second largest in the world. But the delay in switching from indigenous energy sources to coal is due to the snail paced progress in the Thar Coal Pr oject that is in collaboration with China. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢ rocketing economy has driven coal industry into a new era of efficient utilization. Pakistan should take heed from ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s example and should gain technical assistance from it.Both countries can collaborate in Gwadar and Thar to explore and exploit new gas and coal reserves. Coming on to the gas pipeline projects, the IRAN-PAKISTAN-INDIA (IPI) pipeline is most realistic plausible one presently. It is at an efficiently advanced stage of implementation but has fallen prey to the disagreement in pricing formulas and trust deficit between India and Pakistan. Both the thar coal and IPI project require tactful diplomatic maneuvering and improving ties with India. An agreement between the two countries on IPI will enhance the prospects of resolving the water issue as well.Another aspect of solving this problem is the utilization of alternate and renewable resources of energy. It has been adopted by many developing and develope d countries of the country to avert this crisis, such as Brazil, India, U. S. , Holland etc. Pakistan however, lags far behind in this regard. Consequently, some NGOs and public communities have took initiative in harnessing the renewable resources of energy such as wind and solar power. Pakistan is ideally situated to make use of both these resources. Isolated cases of developing these modes of energy can be seen in the illages of Thar desert ( solar energy ) and in some areas of Thattha and Karachi ( wind energy ) but it still needs massive government support. Interestingly, the Alternate Energy Development Board (AEDB) of Pakistan has collected data of all areas in the country suitable for making use of these alternate sources of energy but initiative for utilization of these sources are absent. Pakistan can very efficiently make use of its long day light hours and wind power in the coastal region to produce power for upcoming years.Most important in the long term planning and go als must be to streamline the foreign policy of the country according to its economic and energy needs. Improving and increasing ties with future energy rich countries must not be neglected. As mentioned earlier, China can be a great asset in technical training and facilities. Similarly, bilateral relations with Russia, Central Asian, East African states needs to be strengthened. These countries are the new energy hubs of the world, and being mostly land locked (C. A. states) can make use of Gwadar port and in return assist Pakistan as well.Taking Provincial prejudices and politics into view, the matters which are indispensable for the survival of the country and economy should be kept above such strife. Building new dams, at least Kalabagh dam should be taken on without and delay. Transparency and clarity in the policies and implementation methods of government and public sector power companies is of paramount importance. Without checking corruption and applying stringent measures against malpractices, all well executed policies will ultimately become another drain for the economy.Moreover, educating the stakeholders and workers in the industrial and agricultural sectors on adoption of new and efficient practices of water and energy consumption will tend to reduce the wastage of energy. The theft of electricity must be considered and declared a heinous crime and any violations by domestic or industrial users should be liable to legal penalties and complete power cut off for such consumers. Taking a look at the energy crisis in the transportation sector, there is no doubt that fossil fuels are indeed depleting in the world and of reserves natural gas in Pakistan.To curb the hike in prices and supply shortage , research and exploration of new sites must be given impetus under the patronage of AEDB. Meanwhile, bio fuel ( alcohol or synthetic fuel ) can be produced quite easily in Pakistan. Raw materials for this fuel being wheat and other cereals are in ample su pply in Pakistan. Alcohol can be easily prepared by fermentation of molasses and is already a proper local industry in the country it just needs to be diverted in the right course. Finally, the system and standard of public transport must be improved to discourage the trend of personal vehicles which leads to greater demands of fuel.Making policies has never been the plight of our government. It is the lack of implementation which keeps the wheel of crisis moving. Today our government not only needs to take initiatives and hard decisions it also needs to give a boost to the dying economy by providing unimpeded supply of power to industries. Secondly, corruption, misuse of funds, malpractices of energy consumption and wastage must b avoided and eradicated at all costs. Last but not least, the public trust and support is of utmost important. No policy can succeed if it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy public support.Media can play an effective role in creating awareness and trust that it is actua lly a global crisis which can only be solved with help and conscious effort by every citizen. Conclusively, curbing the energy crisis requires transparent efforts at every level imaginable. The future policies and projects should be so oriented as to make Pakistan self sufficient in the energy sector. Self sufficiency in the energy sector will be the key to a flourishing economy, and a stable economy can serve as a device of curbing several interlinked adversities. The sooner we realize the gravity of this as a whole, the sooner we will emerge out of this crisis.